This Week at GTMO: al-Nashiri Hearings

This week, from February 4-7, Judge Pohl will hear motions relating to the charges against al-Nashiri.  The most current docketing order for this week’s hearings was posted on January 14th (motions to amend this order have since been filed by both parties, but the outcome is not publicly available), and states the following motions (in this order) will be addressed this week:

a. AE 045 Government Motion for a Scheduling Order

b. AE 099D Government Motion for the Commission to Discuss with the Accused Matters

Considered by the Commission During the 18~19 July 2012 and 23 October 2012 Sessions

c. AE 107 Defense Motion to Compel the Convening Authority to Fund Two Individuals to

Act as Defense-Initiated Victim/Survivor Outreach (DIVO) Liaison (plus witness production issue

c. AE 114 Defense Motion to Find that RM.C. 703(c) violates 10 V.S.C 949j.(a)( ) and Mr. al Nashiri’s Constitutional and Statutory Rights to due process

f. AE 118 Defense Motion to Cease the Use of Belly Chains on the Accused by JTF~GTMO

g. AE 120 Defense Motion to Compel Discovery of Information in the Possession of any Foreign Government and the United States related to the Arrest, Detention, and Interrogation of Mr. al Nashiri (Classified)

h. AE 131 Defense Motion to Compel Production of Representative of the OCA to Testify at the Hearing on AE I12

i. AE 140 Government Motion for Inquiry into the Mental Capacity of the Accused Under R.M.C. 706

j. AE 141 Defense Motion to Compel Discovery of the Prosecution’s Prudential Search Requests

k. AE 142 Defense Motion to prevent Mr. Al4Nashiri from Being Removed from the Courtroom During a Closed Session

I. AE 143 Defense Motion to Compel a Copy of A ll Discovery Provided to Habeas Counsel

m. AE 144 Motion to Compel Discovery in the Possession of the United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York Demonstrating the Guilt of Fahd Mohammed Ahmed al~Quso and Jamal Ahmed Mohammad Ali al~Badawi Relating to the Present Charges

n. AE 145 Motion for the Commission to Consider the Defense Request for Expert Assistance III Camera al1d Ex Parte and to Compel the Convening Authority to Approve Funding the Expert as a Defense Consultant

o. AE 146 Motion for the Commission to Consider a Second Defense Request for Expert Assistance 111 Camera al1d Ex Parte and to Compel the Convening Authority to Approve Funding the Expert as a Defense Consultant

For more information on what specifically will be addressed, you can check the government’s website, http://www.mc.mil/CASES/MilitaryCommissions.aspx.  Simply enter al-Nashiri’s name, and  find the corresponding filing code (ex: AE 146) to read the parties’ detailed motions.  Feel free to leave a comment if there is a specific motion you would like to see the Center’s Fellows discuss further on the blog this week.

As you can see by the sheer volume of motions to be addressed this week, it will be an eventful few days.  Check back periodically for reports from our student observer, Sean Kennedy, who will be at GTMO observing this week’s hearings.

Kelly Ann Taddonio, Research Fellow

Center for Policy & Research

Only the Judge is in Control, Except When He Isn’t

2L student Adam Kirchner is currently observing the KSM hearings in Guantanamo.  This article, describing his experiences as an observer, was featured in “The Public Record” today:  

The Guantanamo Bay Military Commission Hearing, United States v. Mohammed, et al., resumed on Tuesday after adjourning on Monday. As expected, all of the accused waived their right to appear at their own hearings, with co-defendant Walid bin Attash’s criticism of the trial’s process still echoing from the day before. Bin Attash had described the process, given the detainees’ inability to communicate with their attorneys without the government listening in, as undermining  the establishment of trust in the  attorney-client relationship— and the legitimacy of the hearing itself. . Bin Attash, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, and three other co-defendants, are charged with violations of the Military Commission Act of 2009 for their alleged roles in the preparation for the 9/11 terrorist attacks.

Only the Judge is in Control, Except on Monday

Immediately following the issue of the non-present defendants, Presiding Judge James Pohl addressed the pressing question of who, exactly, is in control of his courtroom. In Monday’s hearing, all but the prosecution were surprised when the audio feed to the gallery of press, NGOs and the families of 9/11 victims suddenly halted when defense counsel for KSM uttered the title of a motion pertaining to his client’s detention at a CIA sponsored black-site prison— a matter of public record. Judge Pohl reaffirmed that, even though a court security officer has instructions about what topics are to be censored, only the presiding judge has the authority to close (i.e., censor) the courtroom. Furthermore, Judge Pohl noted that the comment that resulted in the censorship “is not a valid basis for the court to have been closed.”

Judge Pohl then attempted to resolve— on the record— the defense’s concern  regarding who has access to audio feeds from the courtroom. He explained that there are two audio feeds. One feed never is censored and is transmitted only to the court reporter. The other feed – the feed in question during Monday’s prolonged censorship – is buffered with a 40-second delay, which allows the aforementioned court security officer time to sever the feed before it reaches the gallery or remote-viewing locations. “The purpose of the 40-second delay,” in Judge Pohl’s words is, “to prevent spillage of classified information.”

It Was Not A 40-Second Delay

James Harrington, Learned Counsel for co-defendant Ramzi Binalshibh, quickly brought to the commission’s attention that Monday’s actual events seem inconsistent with characterizing the censorship episode as an accidental 40-second delay glitch. “[T]here was a little bit of a delay; it wasn’t a 40-second delay,” Mr. Harrington said. “That is not what happened. The light went off in a time much shorter than 40 seconds.”

Judge Pohl stopped Mr. Harrington’s line of argument at that point, out of concern that it risked “sliding into an area we shouldn’t talk [about] in open court.” Counsel for both parties and Judge Pohl had discussed these issues in a closed session Monday afternoon. Elsewhere, Judge Pohl identified the crux of this and similar debates about the process of the hearings and access to information: “we are getting into a line between what is public and what is security.”

Judge Pohl: The United States Must Comply With Its Own Regulation

While it may seem that Judge Pohl shifted quickly from preserving access to information during the  hearings, to cautioning defense counsel about divulging information to which the public wants access, the issue resurfaced later during Tuesday’s proceedings. Judge Pohl ultimately held in favor of some procedural transparency, granting the defense’s motion to release redacted versions of classified pleadings.

James Connell, Learned Counsel for co-defendant Ammar al-Baluchi, illustrated for the commission that many documents in the case have remained entirely unavailable to the public for more than three months, some approaching half a year, despite the Government’s practice of releasing sanitized versions with sensitive information redacted.

Sterling Thomas, an Air Force Lieutenant Colonel and detailed defense counsel to al-Baluchi, further argued for the availability of documents, noting that the very slogan appearing on the Military Commission’s website would seem to promote intrinsic notions underlying the pursuit of justice:

“Your Honor, if you were to click on the Office of Military Commission website, you’re immediately greeted with the banner of fairness, transparency, and justice. And if one were a cynic, Your Honor, one might say that these words are merely window dressing. But yet, Your Honor, I think that it’s important to note that those words are there and that obviously the government understands that that’s an important principle…. But, Your Honor, the frustration continues to build as a result of delays in the – in having openness, in having transparence. And I think it was evident as recently as yesterday when our client made some statements about his frustration with the lack of what he sees as openness and transparence. And, Your Honor, I think that equally you could say the American people are also frustrated by a lack of openness and transparence. With those things in mind, Your Honor, I just want to emphasize that we think it’s critically important that whenever possible the pleadings, orders by the commission that are not classified, that these things be made available to the public so that they can inform themselves and educate themselves about this trial.

Against the points made by the defense counselors, Navy Lieutenant Kiersten Korczynski, assistant trial counsel for the United States, argued little more than that the defense is required by the Military Commission Rules to file documents, that are not certainly unclassified, directly to the judge rather than through the ordinary docketing process.

The relevant regulation (RTMC 17-1(c)(1)) is designed to preserve the judge’s control over the release of trial-related information. If the United States wants to prevent the defense’s documents from being released, the prosecution must petition the judge to do so. Likewise, if the defense wants to compel the release of their documents, it must petition the judge to do so.

Finding that the Military Commission Rules already provide the remedy that, if followed, would preclude the United States from indefinitely detaining unclassified information, Judge Pohl held essentially that the United States must comply with its own regulation.

The hearing adjourned until Wednesday, to determine if the defense will be prepared on Thursday to argue a number of outstanding motions to compel the production of witnesses. The United States has refused to produce many defense witnesses for the case, arguing that the defense has not explained how the witnesses are relevant or necessary to the issues.

Adam Kirchner is a dual-degree student at Seton Hall University School of Law and the Whitehead School of Diplomacy and International Relations. He is a Research Fellow of the Center for Policy and Research and the Transnational Justice Project at Seton Hall University School of Law

 

The Khalid Sheikh Mohammed Hearings Resume: But Who Is The Man Behind The Curtain? And “Who is Controlling These Proceedings?”

2L student Adam Kirchner is currently observing the KSM hearings in Guantanamo.  This article, describing his first day as an observer, was featured in “The Public Record” on January 28th.  

The KSM Guantanamo Bay Military Commission Hearing, United States v. Mohammed, et al., reconvened on Monday for the second session of pre-trial motion hearings. The first session of these hearings, held in October, 2012, devolved into what many referred to as “a circus.” The opening session of this week’s hearings produced several tense moments, including a proverbial “Man Behind the Curtain” incident (as Presiding Judge James Pohl’s control of the proceedings was superseded by some, in his words, “external body”); the hotly contested issue of the United States obstructing defense attorneys’ access to their clients arose;  the debate over whether defense attorneys are truly free to communicate with their clients waged on; and, in their own words, the detainees offered the reasons why they choose to waive their rights to be present during the hearings.

The principal defendant, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, and his four co-defendants are each accused of eight distinct changes under the Military Commission of 2009, for their roles in the terrorist attacks of 9/11. The charges against the accused are: Conspiracy, Attacking Civilians, Attacking Civilian Objects, Intentionally Causing Serious Bodily Injury, Murder in Violation of the Law of War, Destruction of Property in Violation of the Law of War, Hijacking an Aircraft, and Terrorism.

In a briefing on Sunday, Chief Prosecutor Brigadier General Mark Martins addressed the suggestion that the recent detainee victory in Hamdan II from the D.C. Circuit would nullify the Conspiracy charges in this case as well. Prosecutor Martins stated that he would proceed in this case, assuming that he will be directed to push forward and argue the merits of the Conspiracy charge, despite the decision in Hamdan II. The strategy would make sense in the event the Hamdan II decision is appealed to the Supreme Court.

In the case at hand, the decisions made by the Judge,  Colonel James Pohl, in this phase of the commission  will ultimately affect the evidence that can be discussed, and the procedure of the commision on the merits once all pre-trial motion hearings have been concluded.

The Prosecution alleges that Khalid Sheikh Mohammed was the “architect of the 9/11 concept” in its motion designed to exclude from the trial information that it asserts could compromise the United States’ national security. See Government Motion to Protect Against Disclosure of National Security Information, AE013, page 3. Elaborating on the claim that Mohammed was the “architect of the 9/11 concept,” the Prosecution charges that he conceived of and oversaw the preparation for the 9/11 attacks. Co-defendant Walid bin Attash’s alleged role in the 9/11 attacks was developing the method by which the hijackers smuggled weapons aboard the airplanes, in addition to training the hijackers in hand-to-hand combat. Following co-defendant Ramzi Binalshibh’s denied entry into the United States, his alleged role in the 9/11 attacks was to be the liaison between the chief hijackers and Khalid Sheikh Mohammed. Co-defendant Ammar al-Baluchi’s alleged role in the 9/11 attacks included financial coordination of the hijackers, in addition to procuring a cockpit operations video and flight simulator for the hijackers’ training. Co-defendant Mustafa al-Hawsawi’s alleged role in the 9/11 attacks was financial coordination of the hijackers. Al-Hawsawi’s actions allegedly included draining the hijackers’ bank accounts on the day of the attacks.

Who is the Man Behind the Curtain?

Static filled the gallery’s speakers, and the large video screens which displayed the 40-second-delayed proceedings went blank— to prevent lip-reading— while a red light flashed at the right-hand side of Judge Pohl’s desk. Observation of the hearing was shut down.

As soon as the audio and visual feeds resumed and the flashing light shut off, Judge Pohl expressed two immediate question/concerns: Who ordered the audio/visual feeds to be censored, because it was not on his authority and why were the feeds censored when Learned Counsel for Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, David Nevin, had been discussing theunclassified portion of the Joint Defense Motion to Preserve Evidence of Any Existing Detention Facility? After resuming control of what information would appear on the record, Judge Pohl emphasized his concern that an “external body” is superseding his authority, remarking that it was if “if some external body is turning the commission off.”

Nevin, on behalf of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, echoed Judge Pohl’s concerns and asked: “Who is controlling these proceedings?”

Learned Counsel for Walid bin Attash, Cheryl Bormann, emphasized  that the mere mention of a motion that contained some classified information seemed to trigger the censorship..

Defense Counsel for Mustafa al-Hawsawi, Navy Commander Walter Ruiz, raised an even more worrisome implication:  If an external body above Judge Pohl’s authority is censoring the audio/visual feeds, that same external body might also be eavesdropping on the defense teams’ communication during the proceedings even when they are not addressing the court. After all, the courtroom is filled with microphones.

Only the Prosecution did not look surprised when the curtain of silence fell upon the courtroom, and they would not discuss what they knew in public.

Counsel discussed these issues in a closed session Monday afternoon, originally slated to deliberate the Military Commission’s Rule 505, which states that an established attorney-client relationship can only be severed for good cause, by the request of the accused, or upon application for withdrawal by counsel. Rule 505 became a pressing issue early in Monday’s session because former-Detailed Defense Counsel for Walid bin Attash, Marine Major William Hennessey, suddenly withdrew from representing his client. Bormann expressed bin Attash’s wish to sever the relationship. However, Judge Pohl stressed the importance of clients themselves, not their counsel or proxies, controlling the severance of an attorney-client relationship when good cause has not been shown, as is the instant issue.

A Case in Point: Denial of Attorney Access to Clients

Before Judge Pohl heard any motions for the day, Ms. Bormann addressed a prevailing issue throughout her representation of Walid bin Attash during the past year: the United States, she argued, obstructs defense counsels’ access to their clients. Bormann and her co-counsel for bin Attash attempted to meet with their client in private at around 8:15, shortly before the proceedings. Bin Attash was present; however, Bormann and her co-counsel were denied any access to their client until he was brought to the courtroom under guard. Bormann argued that today’s barrier to accessing her client was a case in point, following along the lines of other instances of impeded attorney-client access.

Are Defense Attorneys Truly Free to Communicate with Their Clients?

Amidst vocal reactions from the gallery behind the glass, Ms. Bormann  told Judge Pohl, “You don’t live my life.”

Many of the families of 9/11 attack victims present did not, understandably, commiserate with Ms. Bormann. However, Bormann made her remark in the context of her ethical dilemma as an attorney whose attorney-client communication is seized for review by the United States. Ms. Bormann made the point, essentially, that she has not been truly free to communicate with her client since October 2011, thereby depriving her client of her ability to provide a fully informed defense against the charges against him.

Why the Accused Waive Their Rights to Be Present During the Hearings

Cheryl Bormann’s zealous advocacy for her client, Walid bin Attash, was matched in part by her client’s own level of engagement during the proceedings. Bin Attash, with a long, black beard, a head scarf, and a white tunic covered by a camouflage vest, spent much of the proceedings pouring over binders of information through thick, black glasses. Bin Attash made many notes and communicated often throughout the day with his co-defendants.

Anticipating that the accused would abstain from appearing in further sessions this week, Monday’s session concluded with Judge Pohl requiring the accused to answer whether they understood their right to appear at their hearings, and whether they had any questions for him about their rights. All of the accused answered in Arabic, through a translator, that they understood their right to appear at the hearings. But only Walid bin Attash took the opportunity to discuss why the accused, in their own words, waive their rights to be present during their hearings. Bin Attash, a Yemeni, explained excitedly in Arabic that the hearings’ process gives the accused no incentive to appear in court. The accused have been unable to develop trust in their attorneys despite a relationship lasting over a year. Bin Attash clarified that he and his co-defendants do not want this to be a “personal issue” with Judge Pohl. Bin Attash closed his comments by declaring that the Prosecution does not want the accused to hear or understand anything (presumably in reference to their rights and their waivers to appear at the hearings). Bin Attash:

“We have no motivation to come to court. We have been dealing with our attorneys for a year and a half, and we have not been able to build trust with them. Their hands are bound. The prosecution does not what us to hear or understand or say anything. They don’t want our attorneys to do anything.”

Adam Kirchner is a dual-degree student at Seton Hall University School of Law and the Whitehead School of Diplomacy and International Relations. He is a Research Fellow of the Center for Policy and Research and the Transnational Justice Project at Seton Hall University School of Law

Update re: AV censorship at Monday’s hearing

After yesterday’s censorship of the courtroom proceedings at GTMO, it was rumored that the issue would be addressed at a press conference this morning.

Instead, however, Judge Pohl declined to explain the incident, stating that it was not a discussion that was appropriate for open court.  He explained that a “security officer” is responsible for cutting of the audiovisual feed, but did not explain where this officer is located or why someone outside of the courtroom has the authority to censor the proceedings.

It will be interesting to follow this story as it unfolds, but for now, censorship in the courtroom remains just one of the many closely-guarded secrets at Guantanamo.

Kelly Ann Taddonio, Research Fellow

Center for Policy & Research

 

Censorship Episode During Today’s KSM Hearings Reveal New GTMO Secret

By now, those who follow Guantanamo-related news closely are aware of today’s censorship episode during the military commission hearing for Khalid Sheikh Mohammed (KSM).

During military commission hearings, journalists and observers are seated outside of the courtroom.  They can watch the hearings as they happen, but the sound is delivered via an audiovisual feed, which has customarily had about a 60-second delay.

Today, however, an unknown government censor abruptly shut off the audiovisual feed as David Nevin, counsel to KSM, began his request for information on the case, igniting frustration in the courtroom.   Until today, no one, including Judge Pohl and the defense attorneys, knew that the feed could be cut off by someone outside of the courtroom.  The feed is usually cut off by a security officer in the court or the judge, and typically everyone in the courtroom is aware of what is happening.

The action today generated a buzz on twitter amongst journalists present at the hearing.  Charlie Savage (@Charlie_Savage) said that the switch was hit after the attorney simply read the title of his own, unclassified brief.  Many others, like John Knefel (@johnknefel) indicated the surprise of Judge Pohl, and were surprised to find that even Judge Pohl didn’t know who hit the censorship switch.  Knefel tweeted,

“Let today’s censorship episode sink in. Gov official cut feed. When it returned, judge was furious & confused abt why it happened.”

It is rumored that the censorship issue will be addressed at a press conference in the morning, but until then, it certainly brings to light some interesting questions about the secrecy surrounding Guantanamo.

Who is really in control of the courtroom, if its not Judge Pohl? Why did the government feel the need to censor Nevins’ opening statements? As it turns out, there is even more secrecy surrounding Guantanamo than even those who appear to be closest to the action could imagine.

Kelly Ann Taddonio, Research Fellow

Center for Policy & Research

This week’s military commission hearing…

The military commission hearing, United States of America v. Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, et al., resumes on Monday, January 28, at the Guantanamo Bay Naval Station. 2L student and Center fellow Adam Kirchner will be attending the hearing this coming week. 

As with other military commission hearings held in the past, Seton Hall University School of Law’s Center for Policy and Research will be present at the hearings to observe and to report on the parties’ arguments and the commission’s decisions in collaboration with The Public Record

Khalid Sheikh Mohammed and his four co-defendants face seven distinct charges under the Military Commission Act of 2006: conspiracy, attacking civilians, attacking civilian objects, murder in violation of the law of war, destruction of property in violation of the law of war, hijacking or hazarding a vessel or aircraft, and terrorism. The United States brings these charges against the accused parties, alleging their roles in the conception and preparation of the 9/11 attacks in New York, Pennsylvania, and northern Virginia.

Army Colonel James Pohl, the presiding military commission judge, is scheduled to address twenty-three motions during the week’s hearings. The motions raise issues including privileged communications; unauthorized disclosure of protected information; preservation of evidence of existing detention facilities; the accused parties’ conditions of confinement; force-feeding procedures; the CIA rendition, detention, and interrogation program, and the production of witnesses. Hearings are scheduled to be held on Monday through Thursday of this coming week.

Adam Kirchner, Research Fellow

Seton Hall Center for Policy & Research